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Genealogical DNA Testing

Genealogical DNA test is mainly used to test ancestral genealogical relationships. It is a DNA-based test, which verifies and tests the location of the genome of a person. This test can be of different types depending on the DNA type, genome type, genome location, etc. As different companies use different processes and kits, ethnicity varies as per the features.

Process of Genealogical DNA Test 

There is a particular process of genealogical DNA testing. The sample of DNA is collected by spit-cups, chewing gum, cheek-scraping, mouthwash, etc. The sample is collected following the instructions of the test kit. The test kit is supplied by a particular service provider such as MyHeritage, Family Tree DNA, 23andMe, AncestryDNA, etc. The collected sample is reached to the service provider for testing. After that, the sample is tested through the DNA microarray process. This process helps in obtaining genetic information. Thus, the testing is completed resulting in location and other information about the genome.

Type of Genealogical DNA Test 

The principal categories of genealogical DNA testing are described here briefly. These categories are divided based on genealogical research.

  1.   Autosomal

In this test, the chromosomes from 1 to 22 are verified along with the X chromosome. The 1-22 chromosomes are called autosomes, which are generated from the parents and the recent ancestors. The special inheritance pattern of the X chromosome is verified in this DNA testing. Autosomal DNA test follows a particular process of genealogical DNA test.

  1.           Mitochondrial

In this genealogical DNA test, the mitochondrion is verified, which is a component of the human cell. The mitochondria is inherited to the child from the mother. It is used to explore the direct maternal connection. The two most common mitochondrial genealogical DNA tests are HVR1 & HVR2. This test kit is mainly provided by Family Tree DNA.

  1.           Y- DNA

This genealogical DNA test is for testing the Y chromosome of a child. It is the chromosome from the 23rd pair of human chromosomes. The Y chromosome is inherited to the child from the father. Therefore, this test explores the paternal connection.

Benefits of Genealogical DNA Test

There are several benefits of genealogical DNA test, which are-

  • Verifies existing research
  • Confirms suspected connections
  • Finds out living relatives
  • Establishes the relation between two surname variants
  • Helps to determine the ancestral location
  • Identifies genome location for further research
  • Determines ancestral information

Drawbacks of Genealogical DNA Test

There are some specific drawbacks of any DNA test. The common drawbacks of DNA test also in the case of genealogical DNA tests. The drawbacks of genealogical DNA test are-

  • Limited sample databases can cause misinterpretation.
  • DNA and ethnic identity are not connected.
  • Genealogical DNA tests cannot determine the actual ancestor location and racial identity.
  • The test may provide false reports.

Conclusion

There are different types of DNA tests to determine the family connection. Nowadays, genealogical DNA tests are one of the most used DNA tests. This test explores the identity following the particular process of different chromosome testing.

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